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Pleiotropic Effects of Mitochondria in Aging

03/23/2022

The mitochondrial stress-response (MSR) network contributes to the reconstitution of cellular homeostasis by preventing mitochondrial proteotoxicity and by redistributing and removing irreversibly damaged elements of the mitochondria. Recently, scientists have gained considerable insights into why a decline in the robustness of these MSR pathways contributes to cellular damage and organismal deterioration.

This study by Lima et al., published in nature aging, described the pleiotropic effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging.

Pleiotropic effects of mitochondria in aging

 

Pleiotropic effects of mitochondria in aging

They outlined the major mitochondrial stress pathways, how their failure is interconnected with the expansion of mitochondrial DNA mutations and deregulated metabolism, and how this affects cellular and organismal homeostasis.

They furthermore provided an integrated map of how combined mitochondrial defects impact several features of aging, suggesting conserved links that could potentially be harnessed to slow the aging process. They described recent evidence arguing that defects in these conserved adaptive pathways contribute to aging and age-related diseases. Signaling pathways regulating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, mitochondrial membrane dynamics, and mitophagy are discussed, emphasizing how their failure contributes to heteroplasmy and de-regulation of key metabolites.

The current understanding of how these processes are controlled and interconnected explains how mitochondria can widely impact fundamental aspects of aging.

Read the full review.

Targeting Mitochondria 2022 will dedicate a whole session to Nuclear-Mitochondrial Interactions and their Effect on Longevity and Health.